If you are healthy, you have nothing to fear of this organism. But the instant your immune system lets down its guard, the bacteria Pseudomonas aeroginosa steps out of dormancy and you are left facing a life threatening infection (at best). This bacteria is a silent opportunistic killer, gaining increasing notoriety as a potential biowarfare weapon.
Prof. K.P. Gopinathan, Recipient of the Kerala State Award for Lifelong Accomplishments in Science
As you read this, most cells in your body are involved in some form of metabolism – the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions that allow us to digest food, grow, and reproduce. Elegantly, the key chemicals involved in metabolism, referred to as metabolites, are largely conserved across organisms – from the bacteria E. coli to an elephant. These metabolites are produced and consumed dynamically within a cell; however, their excess accumulation can be detrimental to our cells, increasing the risk of disorders such as atherosclerosis, Parkinson, Alzheimer’s, and Cancer.
Estradiol (a.k.a. 17β-estradiol) is a steroid hormone and the primary female sex hormone. It regulates the estrous and menstrual reproductive cycles and maintains the female reproductive tissues. It is to be noted that the brain sex differentiation takes place very early during development. While this steroid hormone is essential for the normal functioning of the female reproductive organs, high doses of estradiol or related steroid hormones result in infertility and masculinization.
Our most simple actions like picking up a mug of coffee, or even the involuntary task of breathing, require the co-ordinated, controlled activities of many proteins. Proteins form the functional units of our body and carry out many varied functions; alteration in the synthesis or function of any part or parts of a protein has been the known cause of various diseases.
Karnataka is home to the largest population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in India. Conservation of these large mammals depends on mapping their occurrence and numbers, both in protected areas as well as non-protected areas. A multi-institution team including scientists from the Nature Conservation Foundation and Indian Institute of Science have identified the regions over which they are found in the state, as well as assessed areas where they are less or more abundant. They find out that there is a significant occurrence of elephants outside the protected areas, which is an important factor in human-elephant conflict.
It may surprise you to know that there are lizards which look more like snakes. Called 'skinks', these lizards are small-legged and resemble snakes in both structure and locomotion. They lack the pronounced neck and long legs that are characteristic of “true lizards”, like the house lizards we share our homes with.